The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) will launch NISAR in 2024, which will deploy the most advanced radar system ever on a NASA science mission. NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) will observe nearly all of Earth’s land and ice surfaces twice every 12 days, measuring movements in extremely fine detail. It will also cover forests and agriculture regions in its survey to demonstrate to scientists how carbon exchange between plants and the atmosphere occurs.

Mission NISAR was envisioned by NASA and ISRO eight years ago, in 2014, with an aim to powerfully demonstrate the capability of radar as a science tool to help Scientists study Earth's dynamic land and ice surfaces in detail. NISAR will be the first satellite with a mission to use two different radar frequencies (L-band and S-band) on the science payload to measure changes in our planet's surface less than a centimetre. The payload of NISAR, set to launch as a part of the NASA science mission will include the most sophisticated radar system (L-band and S-band) ever launched. This system will have the biggest radar antenna of its kind, which will be nearly 40 feet (12 meters) in diameter and drum-shaped with a wire mesh reflector. The antenna will extend from a 30-foot (9-meter) boom.

The dual-frequency imaging radar satellite that uses Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to produce high-resolution images capable of penetrating clouds can collect data day and night regardless of weather conditions. This provides the mission an opportunity to observe wide changes ranging from the flow rates of glaciers and ice sheets to the influences of earthquakes and volcanoes. The NISAR will be loaded with two fully capable synthetic aperture radar instruments: NASA’s 24 cm-wavelength L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (L-SAR) and a 10-cm-wavelength S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (S-SAR) provided by ISRO. NISAR has a 240 km swath, 7 m resolution along track and 2-8 m resolution cross-track (depending on mode).

In addition, NASA is furnishing several essential components for this project, including the radar reflector antenna, the deployable boom, a high-speed communication subsystem for scientific data, GPS receivers, a reliable solid-state recorder, and the payload data subsystem.

Along with the S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is furnishing the spacecraft bus and launch vehicle, as well as the corresponding launch services and satellite mission operations. In March 2021, the S-band radar was constructed by ISRO and transported to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of NASA.

For a period of two years, engineers dedicated a significant amount of time to integrate the S-band radar supplied by ISRO into the instrument with the L-band system constructed by JPL, known as Science Payload, followed by a series of tests to confirm their compatibility. Once the compatibility test was confirmed, the JPL engineers exported the science payload back to India through a specially designed container in late February 2023 via C-17 cargo plane, which landed in Bengaluru on the 6th of March.

In 2024, the NISAR satellite will be launched into a near-polar Earth orbit using ISRO's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark II rocket from Satish Dhawan Space Center located on India's South-Eastern coast. The satellite's science payload will be integrated with its body for the launch.

Girish Linganna
Aerospace & Defence Analyst

Let the Truth be known. If you read VB and like VB, please be a VB Supporter and Help us deliver the Truth to one and all.

London, Jun 10: Australia declared their second innings at 270 for 8 on day four, setting India a mammoth 444-run target to the win the World Test Championship final here on Saturday.

Australia had taken a massive first-innings lead of 173.

Resuming at 123 for 4 on Saturday, they added 147 runs before skipper Pat Cummins declared the innings an hour into the post-lunch session on the fourth day.

Alex Carey was the top-scorer for Australia in the second innings, scoring an unbeaten 66.

Mohammed Shami (2/39), Ravindra Jadeja (3/58), Umesh Yadav (2/54) and picked up the four wickets for India on day four.

Ajinkya Rahane (89) and Shardul Thakur (51) had guided India to 296 in the first innings after the top order collapsed.

Brief Scores:

Australia: 469 and 270 for 8 declared in 84.3 overs (Alex Carey 66 not out, Mitchell Starc 41, Ravindra Jadeja 3/58).

India 1st Innings: 296.