London: Smoker’s Face a condition where smokers look older than they are, is just one of many negative effects caused by heavy tobacco usage, researchers have warned.

“We searched across thousands of traits to identify those that may be affected by how heavily someone smokes. As well as identifying several known adverse effects such as on lung health, we also identified an adverse effect of heavier smoking on facial aging,” said study author Louise Millard from the University of Bristol in UK.

According to the study, published in the journal PLOS Genetics, some people carry one or two copies of a genetic variant that is associated with heavier tobacco use.

To simultaneously identify these two types of effects, the researchers used a novel combination of two data analysis approaches and applied them using data from people in the UK Biobank.

They separated people into two groups. The first contained people who had never smoked, and the second included current and former smokers.

The analysis searched across 18,000 traits and apart from the new finding of more rapid facial aging, also identified several previously reported effects of smoking, confirming the method’s effectiveness.

The known effects of smoking that the analysis identified included worse lung function, and higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and skin cancer.

Besides emphasising smoking’s many dangers, the study also serves as proof of principle that these data analysis tools can be used to identify effects of other exposures of interest, such as alcohol intake.

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New Delhi: Lok Sabha on Saturday passed a bill to further amend the Companies Act and decriminalise various compoundable offences and promote ease of doing business.

The Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2020 -- which seeks to decriminalise various penal provisions and introduce a new chapter related to producer organisations in the legislation -- was passed by the Lower House.

Speaking on the bill, Finance and Corporate Affairs Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said decriminalisation of various provisions under the companies law will also help small companies by reducing litigation burden on them.

Around 48 sections of the Companies Act, 2013 will be amended to decriminalise various offences.

Sitharaman said there are currently around 124 penal provisions compared to 134 in 2013 under the Companies Act.

Stressing that there will be no relaxation for serious offences, including fraud and those that cause "injury to public interest or deceit", the minister said the number of "non-compoundable" offences under the Act remains the same at 35.

Generally, compoundable offences are those which can be settled by paying certain amount of money.

There will also be a new chapter on producer organisation, the minister said, adding that it will be particularly helpful for farmer producer organisations.

For promoting "ease of doing business," the minister said that 17 provisions will be amended.