Berlin: A large-scale study of European trees suggests that the leaves of trees between the tropics and the polar regions of the Earth will start to fall in advance by three to six days by the end of the 21st century rather than lengthening by one to three weeks as current models have predicted.

The scientists, including those from the University of Munich (LMU) in Germany, said earlier studies had predicted that the shedding of leaves from these temperate trees will get later under the ongoing climate crisis.

They said early observations also supported this idea since warming caused leaves to stay on the trees later over recent decades, driving increased growing season length that could help to slow the rate of climate change.

However, the current study, published in the journal Science, showed that this trend might be reversed as increasing photosynthetic productivity begins to drive earlier autumn leaf fall or senescence.

According to the researchers, the results build on growing evidence that plant growth is limited by the ability of tree tissues to use and store carbon.

While changes in the growing-season lengths of temperate trees greatly affect global carbon balance, they said future growing-season trajectories remain highly uncertain since the environmental drivers of autumn leaf senescence are poorly understood.

Autumn leaf-shedding at the end of the growing season in temperate regions is an adaptation to stressors, such as freezing temperatures, the scientists explained.

While a common assumption is that alleviating a warmer climate could allow leaves to persist longer and consume more atmospheric carbon, the researchers said the role of photosynthesis in governing the timing of leaf senescence has not been widely tested in trees.

In the current study, the scientists used long-term observations from dominant Central European tree species from 1948 to 2015, and experiments designed to modify carbon uptake by trees, to evaluate related impacts on senescence.

"Accounting for this effect improved the accuracy of senescence predictions by 27 to 42 percent and reversed future predictions from a previously expected 2- to 3-week delay over the rest of the century to an advance of three to six days," the scientists wrote in the study.

The data revealed that increased growing-season productivity in spring and summer due to elevated carbon dioxide, temperature, or light levels can lead to earlier -- not later -- leaf senescence.

This is likely because roots and wood cease to use or store leaf-captured carbon at a point, making leaves costly to keep, the study noted.

The model built by the researchers forecasted the possibility of slight advances, no delays, in autumn leaf-dropping dates over the rest of the century.

According to the scientists, the results "substantially lower our expectations of the extent to which longer growing seasons will increase seasonal carbon uptake in forests".

However, they said the universality of this pattern in other forest types remains unknown.

The researchers believe it is important to implement such growing-season length constraints in other models that do not consider these dynamics.

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Lucknow: An FIR has been lodged here against the makers of web series 'Tandav' and Amazon's India head of original content for allegedly depicting Hindu gods in a manner hurtful to religious sentiments of the people.

The FIR against Aparna Purohit, the head of Amazon's India head of original content, director of the series Ali Abbas, producer Himanshu Krishna Mehra, writer Gaurav Solanki, and an unknown person was lodged late on Sunday night by senior Sub Inspector Amar Nath Yadav at the Hazratganj Kotwali police station here.

The film starring Saif Ali Khan, Dimple Kapadia, Sunil Grover, Tigmanshu Dhulia, Dino Morea, Kumud Mishra, Mohd Zeeshan Ayyub, Gauhar Khan and Kritika Kamra, premiered on the streaming platform on Friday.

According to the FIR, following public outrage expressed on social media platforms, the web series was viewed and it was found in the 17th minute of the first episode of the series that Hindu gods and goddesses have been presented in an "undignified manner' and shown using language which is hurtful to religious sentiments.

Dialogues in the web series can incite caste anger, the FIR alleged.

It also alleged that the person occupying the high post of Prime Minister of India has been portrayed in a very belittling manner besides there are scenes in which castes have been presented as low and high and women in an insulting manner.

The FIR further alleged that intent of the web series is to incite religious sentiments of a particular community and create enmity among classes.This act of the producer-director has hurt and incited religious and caste sentiments of the people, the FIR added.

Taking cognizance of complaints that Hindu gods and goddesses have been ridiculed in the web series, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had on Sunday sought an explanation from streaming platform Amazon Prime Video on the issue, sources had said.

The development came after BJP MP Manoj Kotak on Sunday said he has written to Information and Broadcasting Minister Prakash Javadekar seeking a ban on Amazon Prime Video's series 'Tandav' for ridiculing Hindu deities.

"The ministry has taken cognizance of the matter (complaints) and asked Amazon Prime Video to explain," a source in the ministry had said.

Kotak, the MP from Mumbai North-East, said different organisations and individuals have complained that Hindu gods and goddesses have been ridiculed in the 'Tandav' web series.

When contacted about the complaints, Amazon Prime Video PR had said the platform "won't be responding" on the matter.

The government recently brought OTT platforms such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video and Disney+ Hotstar, besides other online news and current affairs content, under the ambit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, giving it powers to regulate policies and rules for the digital space.